What are some other performance enhancers athlete's use?
The use of performance enhancing drugs has continued to be a troubling problem over the years. It has become part of the sports culture form high school to professional athletes. Some people view it as cheating, but more importantly, most of these substances have no long term research on them in this capacity and there has been strong evidence that they can have a serious negative impact on your health. Nowhere is this more worrisome than with the adolescent athlete. Their bodies are still going through the growth process and can be especially vulnerable to substances that alter the body chemistry.
TeenHealthFX has focused on Steroids and Human Growth Hormones in the past. You can find that information on our site. While these seem to be the most talked about substances, here are some others that have been in the news recently that can also cause significant health problem:
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a naturally occurring protein hormone that is secreted by the kidneys and regulates how many red blood cells your body produces. EPO stimulates the bone marrow stem cells to make red blood cells, which increase the delivery of oxygen to the kidney. Endurance athletes, such as those who compete in marathons, cycling or cross-country skiing, can use EPO to increase their oxygen supply by as much as 7 to 10 percent. EPO is difficult to detect. The increased red cell density caused by EPO, however, can thicken the blood. The thickened blood does not flow through the blood vessels well. To pump the thickened blood, the heart must work harder, which increases the chances of heart attack and stroke.
Artificial Oxygen Carriers
Artificial oxygen carriers are man-made substances that are designed to aid in the transport of oxygen throughout the body. They can do the work of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in your blood. Doctors use them to treat breathing difficulties in premature infants, patients with severe lung injuries and deep-sea divers. It is not clear how they benefit athletes. Possible side effects include immune-system problems, cardiovascular problems, iron overload and kidney damage.
Blood doping is the practice of infusing whole blood into an athlete in order to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues. A similar effect can be achieved by training at high altitudes. An athlete who infuses his own blood may cause infection or cardiovascular problems because of the increased blood volume (high blood pressure, blood clots, heart failure and stroke). An athlete who uses someone else's blood runs the risk of acquiring viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis.
If you are considering using any of these substances you really have to ask yourself, Is it worth it. Make no mistake about it: these drugs pose serious risks to your health and they can kill you. There are many other effective, healthier, and safer ways to improve sports performance, feel and look better, and improve your ability as an athlete without having to take such a gamble and risk your health and your life.
Teens often abuse prescription drugs because of the myth that these drugs provide a medically safe high.
It is estimated that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects about 5% of adolescents, and that between 10 - 15% of adolescents have some symptoms of depression at any one time.
Statistics show that giving a teen a credit card does not teach them to be financially responsible or to encourage self-restraint, but actually promotes a “spend now and deal with the consequences later” mindset.
Girls are more likely to intentionally abuse prescription drugs than boys.
The reality of excessive interest rates and fees that often accompany credit card use for teens, can put youngsters in a position where they are losing out on admission to graduate school, getting a job, or renting an apartment because of damaged credit history.
Less than 33% of teens with depression get help, yet 80% of teens with depression can be successfully treated if they seek help from a doctor or therapist.
Traffic crashes are the greatest single cause of death for all persons age 6-33, and about 45% of these fatalities are alcohol-related crashes.
About 6.2 million Americans get a new genital HPV infection each year.
30% of teens with depression also have a substance abuse problem.
Freshmen bring an average of $1,585.00 in credit card debt to college.
About a third of women who seek services related to unprotected sex, such as pregnancy testing or emergency contraception, do not receive STD counseling, testing, or treatment.
7-10% of college students will drop out of school because of credit problems.
Teens with untreated depression are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors, leading to higher rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.
Most smokers begin smoking as teens, and the average age of initiation is 12.5 years of age.
People with manic symptoms and Bipolar Disorder II are at a significant risk of later developing an alcohol abuse or dependence problem.
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. teens, accounting for 36% of all deaths in this age group.
The teen pregnancy rate in the United States is the highest of any industrialized democracy, nearly twice that of Great Britain and 10 times that of Japan. 4
Compared with other age groups, teens have the lowest rate of seat belt use, and male high school students are more likely than female students to rarely or never wear seat belts.
A national study of women ages 15-44 found that women were almost twice as likely to receive contraceptive services rather than STD services.
The teenage pregnancy rate in the U.S. is at its lowest level in thirty years, down 36% since its peak in 1990. Research suggests that both increased abstinence and positive changes in contraceptive practice are responsible these recent declines in teen pregnancy.
A sexually active teenager who does not use contraceptives has a 90% chance of becoming pregnant within one year. 8
In the United States, at least 5-10 million girls and women and 1 million boys and men are struggling with eating disorders. 11
Among male drivers between 15 and 20 years of age who were involved in fatal crashes in 2005, 38% were speeding at the time of the crash and 24% had been drinking.
Homicide is the second leading cause of death among 15- to 24-year-olds overall. 16
Every two minutes, somewhere in America, someone is sexually assaulted. 22
One in four teenage girls in the U.S. had at least one common sexually transmitted disease.
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among youths ages 15 to 20. 19
The highest Chlamydia rates occurred among women ages 15 to 19 and 20 to 24.
About 44% of rape victims are under age 18. Three out of every twenty victims (15%) are under age 12. 25
Each year, half of all HIV infections are among people under the age of 25.
Crash risk is particularly high during the first year that teenagers are eligible to drive.
One out of every six American women have been the victims of an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime. A total of 17.7 million women have been victims of these crimes. 23
Teen girls ages 15-19 have the highest Gonorrhea rate of any age group.
The motor vehicle death rate for male drivers and passengers ages 16-19 is more than one and half times that of their female counterparts.
More than four in 10 young women become pregnant at least once before they reach the age of 20 - nearly one million teen pregnancies a year 3
The presence of teen passengers increases the crash risk of unsupervised teen drivers; the risk increases with the number of teen passengers.
Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in this country. More than 400,000 Americans die from tobacco-related causes each year, and most of them began using tobacco before the age of 18.
The risk of motor vehicle crashes is higher among 16- to 19-year-olds than among any other age group.
Underage drinking costs the U.S. more than $58 billion every year; enough to buy every public school student a state-of-the-art computer.
At all levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC), the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle crash is greater for teens than for older drivers.
Teens who drink are more likely to be victims of violent crimes and sexual assault, have serious problems in school, be involved in drinking-related traffic crashes, and develop problems with alcohol later in life.
Nearly all the poison deaths in the U.S. are attributed to drugs, and most drug poisonings result from the abuse of prescription and illegal drugs.
Alcohol kills 6.5 times more youth than all other illicit drugs combined.
Persons aged 15-24, who represent only 14% of the U.S. population, account for 30% ($19 billion) of the total costs of motor vehicle injuries among males and 28% ($7 billion) among females.
Among young people ages 12-17, prescription drugs have become the second most abused illegal drug, behind marijuana.